Theme 2: Assessing progress on sustainable production and development

The sustainable production and development theme covers the economic sectors and activities that contribute to and drive deforestation and forest degradation, including agriculture, extractive industries, infrastructure, and other aspects of economic development.

Sustainable production and development are essential for global forest goals. Forests and other natural ecosystems are being destroyed and degraded at rates far higher than they can be regenerated. Global market demand for soft commodities like food and timber, and for mined commodities like fossil fuels, metals, and minerals drives the expansion of forest risk activities like agriculture, extractive industries, forestry, and infrastructure.

Over the last decade, governments and companies have made numerous global commitments and statements indicating their intent to protect and restore forests. Most (193) national governments signed on to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which includes the goal of sustainably managing and protecting forests. Another almost-universal pledge is the Glasgow Leaders’ Declaration on Forests and Land Use, endorsed by 145 national governments during COP 26 in 2021. Many global companies have joined forces with the Consumer Goods Forum, among other pledges, to promote sustainable commodity production. Many governments and companies have also made individual pledges.

How do we assess progress?

This theme assesses the following indicators of progress toward sustainable production and development:

  • Global trends in commodity-driven deforestation and forest degradation from forest-risk supply chains like mining and agriculture.
  • Governments and whether they i) align macroeconomic development with forest goals, ii) implement policies that promote sustainable commodity production, and iii) implement policies that promote sustainable livelihoods and forest goals in tandem.
  • Companies’ progress towards i) eliminating deforestation and ecosystem conversion from forest-risk agricultural commodity supply chains and ii) mitigating the forest and land use impacts of extractive industries.
  • Grassroots actors and their advocacy for forest protection and alternative development pathways, along with barriers to progress.
  • Collaborative efforts’ progress on advancing jurisdictional- and landscape-scale forest initiatives.